Declaring variables

Local variables

A variable can have a type, be nullable, be dynamic and be an array.


Mutable variables are declared var. You can specify the type of a variable by appending it after the variable name.


var a string = "Hello, World!" //Immediate assignment
var b = "What's up?" //Type 'string' is inferred
var c string //Type 'string' is given, but variable is not assigned
var d //Type is inferred on first usage
var e any //Dynamic variable; can be anything, type can change


Immutable variables are declared with let. You can specify the type of a variable by appending it after the variable name.


let a string = "Hello, World!" //Immediate assignment
let b = "What's up?" //Type 'string' is inferred
let c string //Type 'string' is given, but variable is not assigned
let d //Type is inferred on first usage


Dynamic variables can change their type at runtime. A dynamic variable is declared by appending *anyafter the variable name. An immutable variable can not be dynamic.


var my_dynamic_var *any


You can make variables of simple datatypes nullable by appending ? after the datatype. An immutable variable can not be nullable. Dynamic variables can also not be nullable as assigning null to a dynamic variable works out of the box (it will make the variable an object).

var count int?
var name string?

Deconstruct assign

One can deconstruct/match an object or a list and assign it to a variable.

var MyResult{err := err, result := result} = doSomething()
var MyResult{err: null, result string := result} = doSomething() //throws an exception if err is not null
var {status atom, data} = doSomethingElse()
var {:ok, data} = doSomethingElse() //throws an exception if first element of list is not :ok

Access modifiers

Access modifiers can control who has access to a specific variable.

protected //Accessible from all inherited members
public //Accessible over direct access
private //Not accessible from outside

Non-local variables

In a class

Variables in a class can have any access modifier. Since Hades has inheritance, variables in classes can also be protected.


class Employee
public let firstname string
public let lastname
private var age int = 18
var attributes string[] //When no access modifier is given, the variable will have private access

In a struct

Variables in a struct can not have an access modifier because in a struct, all variables are publicly accessible. Other than that, variable declaration in a struct is the same as anywhere else.

In a script

Variables in a script can be private or public since scripts can be used by other Hades code. Variables in scripts can not be protected as scripts are unable to inherit.

Access modifier annotate blocks

The access modifier annotate block can set the access specifier for multiple variables at a time. Access modifier blocks can only be used in classes and scripts.

An access modifier block is declared with @modifier. Access modifier blocks follow the same rule as non-local variables.


class Vehicle
var make string
var speed int
var manned? bool
var connection object